Contraceptive Technology Update
Diaphragm: Update on This Barrier Contraceptive
Diaphragm: Update on this barrier contraceptive Executive Summary The female diaphragm offers hormone-free contraception that is female-initiated and female-controlled. Currently available diaphragms require a pelvic examination and fitting to ensure proper size and placement of the device. * Two ... (Publication: Contraceptive Technology Update)
CNE/CME Objectives & Questions
CNE/CME Objectives After reading Contraceptive Technology Update, the participant will be able to: * identify clinical, legal, or scientific issues related to development and provisions of contraceptive technology or other reproductive services; * describe how those issues affect services and ... (Publication: Contraceptive Technology Update)
Perspectives in Sexual and Reproductive Health
The Association Between Belief in God and Fertility Desires in Slovenia and the Czech Republic
Research on the association between religiosity and fertility—and, particularly, on the effects of secularization on fertility desires and outcomes—has been concerned primarily with mechanisms that are fundamentally institutional and are embedded in formal religious structures. Supplementary explanations focused on noninstitutional dimensions of religiosity have never been tested.
Conventional ordinary least‐squares regression was used to test the association between belief in God (i.e., a personal God or some sort of life force) and fertility desires among 2,251 women aged 18–45 in Slovenia and 951 women aged 15–44 in the Czech Republic who participated in the European Family and Fertility Survey in the mid‐1990s.
In both samples, substantial proportions of women either were nonbelievers or believed in God but were not institutionally religious. Belief in God was independently associated with fertility desires even in analyses controlling for self‐reported religiosity. Women who believed in a personal God wanted approximately 0.2 more children, and those who believed in a life force wanted approximately 0.1 more children, than nonbelievers. Results were similar across several alternative measures of religiosity.
At least some of the connection between religiosity and fertility apparently is attributable to metaphysical beliefs. Future research on the effect of secularization on fertility decline should investigate the potentially distinct effects of different dimensions of religiosity.
Parent‐Based Adolescent Sexual Health Interventions And Effect on Communication Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analyses
Parent‐based adolescent sexual health interventions aim to reduce sexual risk behaviors by bolstering parental protective behaviors. Few studies of theory use, methods, applications, delivery and outcomes of parent‐based interventions have been conducted.
A systematic search of databases for the period 1998–2013 identified 28 published trials of U.S. parent‐based interventions to examine theory use, setting, reach, delivery mode, dose and effects on parent–child communication. Established coding schemes were used to assess use of theory and describe methods employed to achieve behavioral change; intervention effects were explored in meta‐analyses.
Most interventions were conducted with minority parents in group sessions or via self‐paced activities; interventions averaged seven hours, and most used theory extensively. Meta‐analyses found improvements in sexual health communication: Analysis of 11 controlled trials indicated a medium effect on increasing communication (Cohen's d, 0.5), and analysis of nine trials found a large effect on increasing parental comfort with communication (0.7); effects were positive regardless of delivery mode or intervention dose. Intervention participants were 68% more likely than controls to report increased communication and 75% more likely to report increased comfort.
These findings point to gaps in the range of programs examined in published trials—for example, interventions for parents of sexual minority youth, programs for custodial grandparents and faith‐based services. Yet they provide support for the effectiveness of parent‐based interventions in improving communication. Innovative delivery approaches could extend programs’ reach, and further research on sexual health outcomes would facilitate the meta‐analysis of intervention effectiveness in improving adolescent sexual health behaviors.
Guttmacher Policy Report
Guttmacher Institute Monthly State Policy Update
This update provides information on legislation,
as well as relevant executive branch actions and judicial decisions in states across the country