Contraceptive Technology Update
Diaphragm: Update on This Barrier Contraceptive
Diaphragm: Update on this barrier contraceptive Executive Summary The female diaphragm offers hormone-free contraception that is female-initiated and female-controlled. Currently available diaphragms require a pelvic examination and fitting to ensure proper size and placement of the device. * Two ... (Publication: Contraceptive Technology Update)
CNE/CME Objectives & Questions
CNE/CME Objectives After reading Contraceptive Technology Update, the participant will be able to: * identify clinical, legal, or scientific issues related to development and provisions of contraceptive technology or other reproductive services; * describe how those issues affect services and ... (Publication: Contraceptive Technology Update)
Perspectives in Sexual and Reproductive Health
Short and Long Interpregnancy Intervals: Correlates And Variations by Pregnancy Timing Among U.S. Women
Short and long interpregnancy intervals are associated with adverse health outcomes. Little is known about the correlates of short and long interpregnancy intervals in the general population, and whether correlates vary by pregnancy intention.
Data on 10,236 pregnancies following a live birth were drawn from the 1995, 2002 and 2006–2010 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth. Logistic regression was used to assess characteristics associated with women's reporting short interpregnancy intervals (less than 12 months) and long intervals (greater than 60 months). Analyses were stratified by whether women considered their pregnancies well timed or mistimed.
Thirty‐one percent of pregnancies following short intervals and 47% following long intervals were well timed. Among well‐timed pregnancies only, the odds of short intervals were elevated if women had been 35 or older, rather than aged 20–29, at last pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.3); if their prior infant had died (10.6); or if they had wanted their prior pregnancy sooner than it had occurred (2.2). Overall, the odds of long intervals were higher among minority groups than among whites (1.4–1.6) and were lower among women who had been 30 or older at prior pregnancy than among those who had been in their 20s (0.1–0.5); they increased with level of family income. Correlates of long intervals generally varied little by intention.
Although the majority of pregnancies at short intervals are unintended, specific subsets of women have elevated odds of intending short interpregnancy intervals.
Relationship Characteristics and Contraceptive Use Among Dating and Cohabiting Young Adult Couples
Contraceptive decision making occurs in the context of relationships. Although many individual‐level characteristics have been linked to youths’ contraceptive use, less is known about associations between contraceptive use and relationship‐level characteristics.
Data from the 2001–2002 romantic pair subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to describe characteristics of 322 dating relationships and 406 cohabiting relationships among young adults aged at least 18 years. Logistic regression was employed to assess associations between these characteristics and hormonal or long‐acting contraceptive use and condom use. Data from both partners allowed discordance in reports between partners in some measures to be examined.
Cohabiting couples were less likely than dating couples to have used condoms (19% vs. 37%) and hormonal or long‐acting methods (40% vs. 57%) at last sex. In dating relationships, couples reporting discordant levels of intimacy and couples in which neither partner reported a high level of intimacy had greater odds of condom use than couples in which both partners reported high intimacy (odds ratios, 4.5 and 3.3, respectively); mistrust and male problem drinking were negatively associated with condom use (0.3 for each). For cohabiting couples, frequency of sex was negatively associated with condom use and hormonal method use (0.8 for each).
At least for dating couples, contraceptive use is linked to multiple dimensions of relationships, particularly measures reflecting relationship quality—both positive and negative.
Guttmacher Policy Report
Unintended Pregnancy Rates Continue to Vary Widely By State
In 2010, more than half of all pregnancies were unintended in 28 states; in the remainder of states, a minimum of 36% of pregnancies were unintended, according to “Unintended Pregnancy Rates at the State Level: Estimates for 2010 and Trends Since 2002,” by Kathryn Kost. In most states, unintended pregnancy rates were within the range of 40 to 55 per 1,000 women aged 15–44; the states with the highest unintended pregnancy rates were Delaware (62), Hawaii and New York (61 each), and the lowest rate was in New Hampshire (32). Unintended pregnancy rates were generally highest in the South (Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Virginia) and Southwest (Texas, New Mexico), and in densely populated states (Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York).